Academic Disciplines as Approaches
Approaches are sometimes identified in terms of academic disciplines or subdivisions thereof. Thus there are references to historical, economic, sociological, psychological, geographic, and philosophic approaches. Those employing these terms apparently assume that certain criteria for selecting questions and data go with each academic discipline. We will see to what extent this is true and to what extent political scientists can advantageously employ the criteria of other disciplines in the study of politics.
The word history is used in a number of senses. There is history-as-actuality, history-as-record, and history-as-written; and history is the name of an academic discipline.
"History-as-actuality means all that has been felt, thought, imagined, said, and done by human beings as such and in relation to one another and to their environment since the beginning of mankind's operations on this planet." History-as-record consists of documentary and other primary evidences of history-as-actuality. History-as-written is presumably based upon history-asrecord and consists of various kinds of narratives or accounts of a portion of history-as-actuality.1 As an academic discipline, history is what is taught and written by members of departments of history.
Obviously, history-as-actuality encompasses a multitude of different kinds of activities. History-as-written can therefore vary considerably in its subject matter. There can be histories of art, of science, of religion, of political life, and so on; and there can be