REGULATION OF INDIRECT PRICING
The subject matter of this chapter reflects a penetration into another area of the largely uncharted realm of trade practices for the purpose of examining, analyzing, and classifying NRA regulation of these practices. In addition to all of those regulations discussed in the four preceding chapters, the NRA established a large and varied list of rules. Examination of these regulations, an investigation of the purposes which lay behind many of them, and a detailed study of the effects of certain ones indicate that a large number of them may be classed as restrictions on indirect pricing. An understanding of these provisions and a comprehension of the purposes they are designed to accomplish, and of the economic effects which flow from them, require a brief presentation of the institutional arrangements out of which grow the practices dealt with by these provisions.
Among the most obvious developments in America since the Civil War has been the expansion of productivity and total national income.1 This increase of productivity has made it possible for a large part of the population, at least in good times, to enjoy something more than the bare necessities of life. In this area, beyond bare necessities, there has developed a great diversity of new products, thus offering consumers a wide range of choice.
Consumers' choices in the area of consumption beyond bare necessities are far more fluid and shiftable than when concerned with primary needs. This results partly from the biological facts involved and partly from the lesser____________________