The recovery from the war was generally thought to be complete by 1953. Many other reasons point to 1953 as a milestone year in the postwar era. Its key events included:
-- The arrival in January of Eisenhower in the White House and Dulles in the State Department.
-- The death of Stalin in March.
-- The first popular uprising in a Soviet bloc country, East Berlin, in June.
-- The end of De Gasperi's political career after the failure of an electoral reform manoeuvre in the June general election in Italy.
-- A permanent ceasefire in the Korean War in July, followed by the establishment of a dividing line (still existing) between North and South Korea.
-- The nomination of Nikita Krushchev as First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.
-- The first US-Spanish accord, in September, for the construction of military bases and the granting of military aid to Franco. This agreement signalled the beginning of Spain's re-entry into the international system.
-- The substantial victory of the CDU in the German elections of November.
Beyond all these auspicious events, the signs of a new upward lift in everyday life, beyond stability and hope to a different kind of progress, were to be seen on all sides. The contours of a postwar baby boom became clear, and commentators everywhere, noting that it was 'far greater than the normal postwar rise from postponed marriages and return of husbands', took it to be a great affirmation of faith in the future, especially as it was shared between Europe and America.