America's Struggle with Chemical-Biological Warfare

By Albert J. Mauroni | Go to book overview

Notes

CHAPTER 1: SWORDS OR SHIELDS: THE DEBATE OVER WMDS
1.
More precisely, the military makes a distinction between toxic chemical agents (which create casualties) and herbicides and riot control agents (which temporarily incapacitate and do not create casualties if properly used). Some arms control advocates claim that riot control agents (RCAs), developed in the 1960s, and incendiary munitions (such as napalm) should be considered as chemical warfare agents. Technically, CS and other riot control agents are chemical compounds and are often referred to as chemical agents in 1960s Army technical manuals. It must be noted that RCAs such as CS tear gas do not permanently maim or kill their targets as a result of exposure to the powder or gases alone (when used in typical employment scenarios). While pumping a room with burning CS gas may cause casualties, that is caused by the absence of oxygen rather than the actions of the tear gas. In a similar fashion, the jellied substance napalm is not harmful until it is burning, as opposed to the actions of mustard gas on contact with flesh. For these reasons, the United States has always differentiated between the applicability of incendiaries, RCAs, and chemical warfare agents under the laws of combat while often developing the agents and their munitions in the same laboratories.
2.
Edward M. Spiers, Chemical and Biological Weapons: A Study of Proliferation ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), p. 5.
3.
Carbamates are also categorized as nerve agents, but they are solid and not organophosphates as opposed to tabun, sarin, soman, and VX. Carbamates were not weaponized, as they are not as intrusive as liquids and aerosols.
4.
See Public Law105-736, House language section 1045, Chemical Warfare Defense.

CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMICAL CORPS ENTERS THE COLD WAR
1.
Frederick Brown, Chemical Warfare; A Study in Restraints ( Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 191-95.
2.
Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Chemical and Biological Weapons: Some Possible Approaches for Lessening the Threat and Danger ( Washington, DC: GPO, 1969), p. 47.
3.
The Chemical Corps Association, The Chemical Warfare Service in World War II ( New York: Reinhold Publishing, 1948), pp. 20-21, 36.

-263-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
America's Struggle with Chemical-Biological Warfare
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 293

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.