seem to create more problems than they solve, and American welfare programs may have done more to create an underclass than to solve the problem.
While I was working with Jim Allen in 1966 to plan the School of Management for Northwestern University, as we were discussing the meaning of management, he said, "Isn't it really all people?" Obviously this reflects the humanistic orientation of the Renaissance and the lessons Jim had probably learned from Walter Dill Scott, one of the pioneers in applying the scientific method to human behavior. I could not help but agree, and yet I argued that results are also important, because they give meaning to a person's involvement in an organization. Accomplishments, progress, performance -- these are the American version of fundamental values, instead of the family position, landownership, and inherited titles of Europe. This concept of the American Dream is still alive and well, and relevant to our needs for public management today.