Seven Principles of Universal Design
In 1995, the Center for Universal Design (CUD) at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC, brought together ten designers, engineers, researchers, architects, and advocates to articulate seven (7) key ideas behind the concept of "universal design." (In the interests of full disclosure: The author of this book is on the Center's advisory board.) The team included the late Ronald L. Mace, who was then the CUD executive director; Molly Story, a product designer and a member of CUD's Design Development team, in Denver, CO; Mike Jones, then CUD co-director and now at the Shepherd Spinal Center, Atlanta, GA; Jim Mueller, president, J. L. Mueller Inc., of Chantilly, VA; Jon Sanford, a specialist in housing and a member of CUD's Research staff, in Atlanta, GA; Bettye Rose Connell, now of the Veterans Administration, Decatur, GA; Elaine Ostroff, then executive director of Adaptive Environments, in Boston, MA (she has since retired but remains a member of its board of directors); Gregg Vanderheiden, professor of human factors and director of the Trace R&D Center, University of Wisconsin at Madison; Ed Steinfeld, Arch.D, director of the Center for Inclusive Design & Environmental Access (IDEA), School of Architecture and Planning, State University of New York at Buffalo; and Abir Mullick, also of the IDEA Center in Buffalo. The team's work was reviewed by another group, this one comprised of eleven educators and practitioners ( Story and Mueller, 1998). The principles were formally presented to architects, designers, engineers, and educators at the "Designing for the 21st Century" conference, held June 18-21, 1998, at Hofstra University.
The ways these principles apply to architecture and design are beyond the scope of this book. Readers interested in such applications may learn more from two sources in particular. "Computer Aided Instruction" is a multimedia computer based instructional program that illustrates each of the seven principles of universal design. Case studies exemplify product design, interior