A part of Chapter 3 appeared originally as "African Literature for Whom? The Janus-like Function of African Literary Criticism" in Présence africaine101-102 ( 1971), 57-80. A section of Chapter 4 appeared originally as "African Critics and the Western Literary Tradition" in Ba Shiru 8.1 ( 1977), 65-75. I am grateful to the editors of Presence africaine ( Paris) and Ba Shiru, respectively, for permission to use these materials here.
I am also grateful to the following parties for permission to quote as follows:
Presence africaine ( Paris), for quotations from Mohamadou Kane, "The African Writer and His Public", Presence africaine 58 (Eng. ed. vol. 30) ( 1966), 10-32; and for lines from Birago Diop's poem, "Souffles", in Leurres et lueurs ( Paris: Présence africaine, 1960, pp. 64-66;
lbadan University Press, for quotations from Ezekiel Mphahlele, "A Reply", in African Literature and the Universities, ed. Gerald Moore: (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1965), pp. 22-26; and for quotations from Ben Obumselu, "The Background of Modern African Literature", Ibadan 22 ( June 1966), 46-59;
Longman, for quotations from Lewis Nkosi, Home and Exile ( London: Longman, 1965);
The Organisers of the Report on the Proceedings of the First International Congress of Africanists, and Northwestern University Press, for quotations from Ezekiel Mphahlele, "African Literature" in The Proceedings of the First International Congress of Africanists, eds. Lalage Bown and Michael Crowder ( London: Longman; and Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964), pp. 220-232;
Optima, for quotations from Leopold Sedar Senghor, "Negritude: A Humanism of the 20th Century", trans. Clive Wake, Optima 16.1 ( March 1966), 1-8;
Literature East & West, for quotations from Austin J. Shelton, "Critical Criteria for the Study of African Literature", Literature East & West 12 ( 1968), 1-21;
Macmillan Publishing Co., and Routledge & Kegan Paul, for quotations from Paul Bohannon , "Artist and Critic in an African Society", in The Artist in Tribal Society, ed. Marian W. Smith (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1961), pp. 85-95;
African Forum, for quotations from Wole Soyinka, "And After the Narcissist"? African Forum 1.4 ( Spring 1966), 53-64;
Editions du Seuil, for quotations from Leopold Sedar Senghor, Liberté I: Négritude et Humanisme ( Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1964). © Editions du Seuil, 1964.
Every reasonable effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright materials in this book, but in some instances this has proven impossible. The publishers will be glad to receive information leading to more complete acknowledgments in subsequent printings of the book, and in the meantime extend their apologies for any omissions.