spinal development in particular represents a geographical hostage against the use of air and artillery superiority by the incumbent. Oligarchies are reluctant to destroy their constituency in order to protect them from political change. The spine then becomes a favored avenue of approach.

The central locations of the upper class restrained U.S. Air Force assistance to the Aquino government against insurgents in Manila in December 1989. F4 Phantoms merely showed off air superiority to express U.S. support for Mrs. Aquino against the 6,000 rebels who so readily seized the center of the city. Although this was a demonstration by the U.S. of the immediate political potency of armed might, it did not establish a secure political foundation for stable government. The same factors gave rebels an advantage in San Salvador in November 1989, where government forces were reluctant to use artillery and command of the air to dislodge them from downtown. The unrestrained U.S. airborne attack on Panama City in December 1989 showed the civilian cost of heavy firepower brought to bear in the central city.

Both theoretical abstraction and recent events, then, suggest that Third World towns are as vulnerable to attackers and are as difficult to defend as are, theoretically, the cities of the First World. If this is so, then military superiority is an insufficient basis for stable government; the hearts and minds of the people remain to be conquered.


REFERENCES

Contreras J. 1988. "Shining Path." Newsweek (August 15): 32.

Griffin E., and L. Ford. 1980. "A Model of Latin American City Structure". Geographical Review 70:397-422.

Lowder S. 1986. Inside Third World Cities. London: Croom Helm.

O'Sullivan P. 1980. "Warfare in Suburbia." Professional Geographer 32(3): 355- 60.

Quick J., and P. O'Sullivan. 1988. "Military Analysis of Urban Terrain". Professional Geographer 38(3): 286-90.

Trainor E. 1990. "El Salvador: The Battle for the Cities." Marine Corps Gazette (January): 8-11.

U.S. Department of the Army. 1977. The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Company Team. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Field Manual 71-1.

-----. 1979. Urbanized Terrain (MOUT). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Field Manual 90-10.

Wheatcroft A. 1983. The World Atlas of Revolutions. New York: Simon and Schuster.

-148-

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Terrain and Tactics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Tides in Contributions in Military Studies ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures and Tables vii
  • 1 - Military Geography 1
  • References 3
  • 2 - Some Third World Wars 5
  • References 30
  • 3 - The Lie of the Land 31
  • Reference 39
  • 4 - The World at War 41
  • References 68
  • 5 - Geography of Revolution 71
  • References 85
  • 6 - The Geography of Battles 87
  • References 103
  • 7 - Classic Spatial Ploys 105
  • References 111
  • 8 - Terrain and Tactics 113
  • References 123
  • 9 - Guerrillas and Counterinsurgency 125
  • Conclusion 134
  • References 135
  • 10 - War in Cities 137
  • References 148
  • 11 - Northern Ireland 149
  • References 161
  • 12 - Fighting in the Landscape and Fighting for a Place 163
  • References 167
  • Bibliography 169
  • Index 175
  • About the Author 183
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