The New Model Army and Navy
1. In all cases of fight with the enemy the commanders of his majesty's ships are to endeavour to keep the fleet in one line, and as much as may be to preserve the order of battle which shall have been directed before the time of fight
2. If the enemy stay to fight us, we having the wind, the headmost squadron of his majesty's fleet shall steer for the headmost of the enemy's ships.
3. If the enemy have the wind of us and come to fight us, the commanders of his majesty's fleet shall endeavour to put themselves in one line close upon a wind.
4. In the time of fight in reasonable weather, the commanders of his majesty's fleet shall endeavour to keep about the distance of half a cable's length from the other.
5. None of the ships of his majesty's fleet shall pursue any small number of ships of the enemy before the main [body] of the enemy's fleet shall be disabled or shall run.
6. In case of chase none of his majesty's ships shall chase beyond sight of the flag, and at night all chasing ships are to return to the flag.
Fighting Instructions 1330-1816, ed. John Corbett ( London, 1905; reprint New York, 1967), pp. 126-27. These instructions were issued by the duke of York, later King James II, in 1665.
The Thirty Years War was very productive of innovation and change in warfare. Gustavus Adolphus' work in particular had a great impact on the way war was conducted. His influence was obvious in Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army when it was created in 1644 to fight for the Parliament in the English Civil War.
Prior to 1642, the date of the first violence of the civil war, or the Puritan Revolution as it is also called, an English army can hardly be said to have existed. Well aware of how monarchs on the continent used standing armies to dominate their subjects, Parliament refused to fund an army, although the navy received considerable support. What land-based forces