Armies and Politics in Latin America

By Abraham F. Lowenthal; J. Samuel Fitch | Go to book overview

from this heritage, as does the close identification of most of these institutions with the United States. The conflicts of the past seven years have produced major changes throughout the region and the military has not been immune to the effects of these changes. The armed forces are becoming more modernized and institutionalized and are losing some of their ability to totally dominate the domestic scene. But, outside of Costa Rica, they remain the ultimate arbiters of power, a position which they believe they have a right to hold and which they remain determined to defend, no matter what the cost to the nation as a whole.


Notes
1.
Lyle McAlister, The Fuero Militar in New Spain, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1957, p. 15.
2.
Christon I. Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1977, p. 257.
3.
Ibid., p. 219.
4.
John J. Johnson, The Military and Society in Latin America, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964, p. 37.
5.
Gabriel Aguilera Peralta, La integración en centroamerica, n.p.: INCEP, n.d., p. 14.
6.
Letter from Dr. Dana G. Munro to Richard Millet, February 14, 1965. For details on the 1923 conference see Thomas Leonard, United States Policy and Arms Limitations in Central America. The Washington Conference of 1923, Los Angeles: California State University at Los Angeles, 1982.
7.
For details on this see Richard Millett, Guardians of the Dynasty, Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1977.
8.
Washington Post, March 15, 1980, p. A1.
9.
International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 1983-1984, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1983, p. 110.
10.
Ibid., p. 127. El Salvador Military and Economic Reprogramming. Hearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 98th Congress, 1st Session, March 22, 1983, p. 76.
11.
Robert V. Elam, "Appeal to Arms: The Army and Politics in El Salvador, 1931-1964," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1968, pp. 176-77.
12.
Carolyn Forché and Leonel Gomez, "The Military's Web of Corruption," The Nation, October 23, 1982, p. 391.
13.
El Salvador: The United States in the Midst of a Maelstorm. A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, 1982, p. 6.
14.
Foreign Assistance and Related Program Appropriations for 1984. Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 98th Congress, 1st Session, March 1983, pp. 326-27.
15.
Institute for Strategic Studies, op. cit., pp. 110-11.
16.
This is due in part to the fact that the Politécnica, while extremely rigorous, usually manages to graduate up to half of those who enter.
17.
For details of this operation see Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982, and Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinser, Bitter Fruit, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981.

-222-

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