Let us assume that a universal society having some degree of integration is a condition for universal law having some degree of effectiveness, and ask: what are the conditions favorable to the emergence of a universal society, and what are the prospects for its more adequate development in our stage of history? We may look to history and sociology for answers to these questions.
Human history discloses processes of integration and disintegration. Empires, federations, and international organizations have developed and collapsed. Arnold Toynbee presents a picture of the rise, followed by the