American Appeasement: United States Foreign Policy and Germany, 1933-1938

By Arnold A. Offner | Go to book overview

3. DETERIORATING RELATIONS

Choosing an American ambassador to Germany in 1933 was difficult, and for three months after Roosevelt took office there was no replacement for Sackett in Berlin. Other posts were filled. Robert W. Bingham , the publisher of the Louisville Courier-Journal and a friend of of Hull, Secretary of Commerce Daniel C. Roper, and the aging Colonel Edward M. House, agreed to serve in London. Jesse Straus, president of R. H. Macy's in New York, accepted the Paris post. Josephus Daniels, Roosevelt's chief in the Navy Department during the Wilson era, was going to Mexico City. The career diplomat Joseph C. Grew was staying on in Tokyo. The historian Claude Bowers chose Madrid. The wealthy Breckinridge Long, assistant secretary of state from 1917 to 1920, and Roosevelt's floor manager in 1932, went to Rome.1 The criteria usually applied to choosing an ambassador, however--friendship with the President, faithfulness to the party or contributions to its coffers, demonstration of exceptional ability as a foreign service officer--did not readily apply to the Berlin post. The New York Times was partly right on April 9 when it reported that Roosevelt was delaying his choice because he wanted to get a closer look at the activities of the new German government. He regarded the Berlin embassy as of "special importance" at the time.2

____________________
1
Graham H. Stuart, The Department of State: A History of Its Organization, Procedure, and Personnel ( New York, 1949), 315-316; Robert Bendiner, The Riddle of the State Department ( New York, 1942), 176-177.
2
Roosevelt to Cox, Mar. 9, 1933, in Elliott Roosevelt, ed., F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1928-1945, 2 vols. ( New York, 1950), I, 337; hereafter cited as FDRL.

-54-

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American Appeasement: United States Foreign Policy and Germany, 1933-1938
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES xiv
  • 1. Good Years to Bad 1
  • 2. the End of Disarmament 18
  • 3. Deteriorating Relations 54
  • 4. Accounts Settled and Unsettled 77
  • 5. the Coming of Aggression 107
  • 6. Neighbors Good and Bad 134
  • 7. Invitations Declined 175
  • 8. Last Opportunities 214
  • 9. to Munich and War 245
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY, INDEX 281
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 283
  • Index 311
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