Area Handbook for Israel

By Harvey H. Smith; Frederica M. Bunge et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 9
EDUCATION

Education has developed rapidly since the attainment of statehood in 1948, and by 1969 school facilities or informal educational services outside the school system were available to almost everyone. The literacy rate among the Jewish population was estimated at 88 percent. Education is free and compulsory for all children aged 5 to 15. The 10 years of compulsory education include one year of preprimary schooling for 5-year-old children. About 98 percent of the Jewish children of ages 6 to 13 attend primary schools, and an estimated 62 percent of Jewish youths 14 to 17 years of age are enrolled in secondary schools or secondary preparatory courses. The country's seven institutions of higher learning enrolled about 6.6 percent of young men and women in the 20- to 24-year-old group. Adult education programs included Hebrew-language instruction, primary school classes, and a variety of academic and practical courses. The services of schools and of adult education facilities were complemented by the Israeli army and by various paramilitary and youth organizations (see ch. 26, The Armed Forces).

During the late 1960's the extent of participation in the formal educational process varied among groups of different cultural backgrounds. Because of the lack of early educational experiences and the low income earned by their families, immigrants from North African and Middle Eastern countries, and their first-generation descendants, the so-called Oriental Jews, constituted only a small percentage of the student body in secondary schools and in the universities. In 1965 these children accounted for about 15 percent of the students in academic secondary schools and for approximately 12 percent of those attending institutions of higher learning. To encourage the cultural integration and to facilitate the academic advancement of these students, the government introduced simplified curricula and special examination standards for them in the primary and secondary schools.

The period since independence has been marked by growing government initiative in education. The importance of education in furthering national goals has been emphasized by cabinet members, regardless of party affiliation. Government programs initiated during the 1960's were designed to raise the general level of education and

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Area Handbook for Israel
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface v
  • COUNTRY SUMMARY vii
  • Contents xi
  • SECTION I. SOCIAL 1
  • Chapter 2 - PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 13
  • Chapter 3 Historical Setting 29
  • Chapter 4 - POPULATION 55
  • Chapter 5 Ethnic Groups and Languages 67
  • Chapter 6 Social Structures 75
  • Chapter 7 Family 89
  • CHAPTER 8 - LIVING CONDITIONS 98
  • Chapter 9 - EDUCATION 113
  • Chapter 10 - ARTISTIC AND INTELLECTUAL EXPRESSION 131
  • Chapter 12 - SOCIAL VALUES 153
  • SECTION II. POLITICAL 163
  • Chapter 14 - POLITICAL DYNAMICS 187
  • Chapter 15 Foreign Relations 209
  • Chapter 16 - PUBLIC INFORMATION 221
  • Chapter 17 - POLITICAL VALUES AND ATTITUDES 239
  • Chapter 18 - BIOGRAPHIES OF SELECTED KEY PERSONALITIES 255
  • SECTION III. ECONOMIC 273
  • Chapter 20 Agriculture 285
  • Chapter 21 Industry 299
  • Chapter 22 Labor 311
  • Chapter 23 - DOMESTIC TRADE 333
  • Chapter 24 - FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS 345
  • Chapter 25 Financial and Monetary System 357
  • SECTION IV. NATIONAL SECURITY 369
  • Chapter 27 - PUBLIC ORDER AND INTERNAL SECURITY 397
  • Index 447
  • PUBLISHED AREA HANDBOOKS 457
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