Black Miami in the Twentieth Century

By Marvin Dunn | Go to book overview

6 SCHOOL DESEGREGATION

The desegregation of public education did not come easily to Florida or to Dade County. The response in Tallahassee and at the Dade County School Board was to resist the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education U.S. Supreme Court decision, which ordered a halt to racial segregation of public schools. Many gradualist approaches were introduced and discarded as blacks and their white allies in the movement brought more and more pressure on the school system to integrate. Finally, with no remaining legal options available, in late 1959 the Dade County School Board relented and announced that black students would be admitted to Orchard Villa Elementary School the following school year. The desegregation of higher education proceeded with somewhat less resistance.

Throughout the desegregation process, blacks have had some allies. This should not be forgotten or dismissed. Some whites fought for black rights in housing, public facilities, trade unions, and so forth. In some instances white programs and facilities desegregated voluntarily as a matter of principle, quietly admitting blacks in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Further, Miami avoided the violence that was seen in some parts of Florida during the civil rights period.


The Desegregation of Public Schools in Florida

Prior to the historic Brown decision, blacks were segregated into inferior public schools in the American South. In some southern states, blacks were not allowed to attend school at all; in others, such as Florida, black schools were constructed only if blacks paid double taxes. By 1870, only about 10 percent of southern blacks were enrolled in some kind of school, a percentage significantly lower than white enrollment.

Following the Civil War some whites attempted to intimidate blacks with violent acts, including the burning of black schools. However, with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, blacks began to have access to segregated public education. The operation of dual public education systems in the South had been legally justified since 1896, when the U.S. Supreme Court held that the sepa-

-224-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Black Miami in the Twentieth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • PART 1 5
  • 2 - Blacks in Early Miami (1896-1926) 51
  • 3 - Blacks in Early Dade County (1896-1926) 101
  • PART 2 141
  • 5 - The Dade County Civil Rights Movement (1944-1970) 171
  • 6 - School Desegregation 224
  • PART 3 243
  • 8 - Riots of the 1980s 267
  • PART 4 315
  • 10 - Current Status of Blacks in Dade County: An Overview 334
  • Index 393
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 414

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.