Even while the final demise of the indigenous groups of Florida was taking place, new native groups were beginning to colonize the state. Some originally may have come as raiders or as hunters. Others came to avoid the military uncertainty in the regions in which they had been living.
Many of these native colonizers were descendants of earlier native groups, who, in the aftermath of two centuries of disruption and change, had coalesced into the Creek Indians by 1700. As the colonialperiod native societies of Georgia and eastern Alabama were reduced in population and as the remnants of those groups amalgamated and exercised other adaptive strategies, the political unit known as the Creek Confederacy had emerged.
Documents indicate the first Creek towns in Florida date to the 1750s. At that time the Creeks may have encountered handfuls of Florida Indians who remained in isolated pockets in remote areas. If so, those remnant populations were thoroughly incorporated into the newcomers, for the material assemblages found at the early Creek archaeological sites in Florida are most similar to contemporary Creek sites to the north, rather than to the assemblages of any of the indigenous Florida Indians.
The earliest Creek-Seminole towns in Florida were in the old mission provinces of Apalachee and Timucua, especially around what today are the Tallahassee-Lake Miccosukee and Gainesville-Paynes Prairie localities. Some were at abandoned mission sites, while others