Argentina, 1943-1976: The National Revolution and Resistance

By Donald C. Hodges | Go to book overview
December 1969: Gustavo Rearte organizes the Revolutionary Movement 17th
of October (MR-17): designed to overcome the limitations of the MRP by devel-
oping a political vanguard rooted in the trade unions. To replace CGT-A and
to mobilize masses for a popular war.
1969: Montoneros founded by Fernando Abal Medina. Named after gaucho
contingents in Argentina's 1810 War of Independence. Urban guerrilla group
formed in direct response to the Cordobazo. Medina succeeded in 1970 by
Mario Firmenich. Influenced by both Guevarism and Camilism.
1969: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) founded. First Guevarist organiza-
tion on the continent to learn the lessons of Che's failure in Bolivia by adapt-
ing Guevarism to a national context. In December 1970 merged with Peronism.
1970: Montoneros kidnap and execute former Pres. Pedro Aramburu. Begin
to use spectacular armed operations to raise the political consciousness of the
nation.
June 1970: Pres. Juan Carlos Onganía ousted by fellow military officers. Re-
placed by Gen. Roberto Marcelo Levingston.
July 1970: Unity Congress of CGT elects José Rucci its new secretary-general.
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT), affiliated to the Trotskyist Fourth Interna-
tional (Unified Secretariat), forms an armed branch called the People's Revolu-
tionary Army (ERP).
August 1970: Alonso assassinated by Peronist commandos who later join the
Montoneros.
November 1970: Coalition of proscribed political parties called "Hour of the
People" formed. Includes Radical, Popular Conservative, Progressive Demo-
cratic, Socialist parties, and the Peronist movement. Purpose: to pressure the
military government into abdicating and calling new elections.

-xvii-

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Argentina, 1943-1976: The National Revolution and Resistance
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xxi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The Argentine National Revolution 7
  • 2 - Development of the Resistance 32
  • 3 - Contradictions in the Revolutionary Tendency 64
  • 4 - Restructuring the Revolutionary Front 86
  • 5 - The Crisis of Peronism 105
  • 6 - The Peronist Enigma 124
  • 7 - Lessons of the Argentine Resistance 140
  • 8 - International Significance of the Resistance 157
  • Epilogue The Fall of Isabel Perón 167
  • APPENDIX The Cooke-Guillén Guerrilla Plan of 1955 191
  • Selected Bibliography 197
  • Index 201
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