The American Class Structure

By Joseph A. Kahl | Go to book overview

among the people who think of themselves as belonging in the middle. She found that the many-valued model was used by those who placed themselves in the working class but felt some incompatibility in their position. Thus, those who were somewhat better educated than their colleagues or who had pretensions to a more cultured outlook would admit that they were occupationally rather near the bottom but intellectually higher up. They would resolve the difficulty by seeing a society of many layers, with themselves second from the bottom, and more like the level above them on some characteristics than on others.

The mixed prestige-power models were used by intellectuals who tried to reconcile Marxist theories with the more complex facts of contemporary life.

We can now hypothesize that the men in the Cambridge sample who shifted from middle on the open-ended questions to working on the closed probably used the many-valued prestige model in their thinking. They knew they were occupationally in the working class, but when they had the chance to think in other terms (such as education or values) they could see themselves as toward the middle of a complex system. Those who denied class at first but then called themselves workers when forced to make a choice also probably thought of a many- layered system without clear lines of demarcation. Those who stuck to middle class through both forms of the questions were most likely to use the three-layered model. Those who remained with working class through both forms probably came closest to the power model which simplifies and consolidates shades of difference.


CONCLUSIONS

Self-identification is intertwined with a man's basic interpersonal experiences, the theoretical ideas he has been exposed to, and the traits of his personality that lead him to organize experience and ideas in ways congenial to himself. It is probably true that the most important single experience he has in this complex flows from his occupation. But occupation is only part of this total complex. His ideology is in part a consequent of his occupational experiences, but the way he interprets those experiences is influenced by his ideology, and that in turn is influenced by his education, his family background, and so on. Every man thus sees a slightly different class order, and the words he uses to describe himself depend on the points of reference he has in his own subjective perception of the class order. The best the scientific observer can do is to abstract fundamental similarities in perception among wide groups of people by using a scheme something like Bott's which simplifies but does not deny the differences in modes of perception. Then

-180-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The American Class Structure
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xiii
  • Tables xvii
  • Figures xviii
  • I - The Dimensions of Class 1
  • References 16
  • II - Position and Prestige 19
  • Conclusions 47
  • References 49
  • III - Occupational Prestige and Social Change 53
  • Conclusions 85
  • References 87
  • IV - Income, Wealth, and Style of Life 91
  • Conclusions 119
  • References 122
  • V - The Web of Interaction 127
  • Conclusions 153
  • References 154
  • VI - Class Consciousness and Political Ideology 157
  • Conclusions 180
  • References 181
  • VII - Classes as Ideal Types: Emergent Values 184
  • Conclusions 215
  • References 218
  • VIII - Ethnic and Race Barriers 221
  • Conclusions 247
  • References 248
  • IX - Succession and Mobility: the Occupational Base 251
  • Conclusions 271
  • References 272
  • X - Succession and Mobility: Motivation and Education 276
  • Conclusions 293
  • References 294
  • Index 301
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 314

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.