Latin American Urbanization: Historical Profiles of Major Cities

By Gerald Michael Greenfield | Go to book overview

ularly grain, rice, fruit, wood, cloth, leather goods, cattle, horses, and mules. The wide range of products gave strong influence to the merchant class.

Growth was slow but steady, and by the mid- nineteenth centuryTucumán was the commercial focus of the Argentine northwest, having surpassed Santiago del Estero, which was not directly astride the "camino del Peru" (Peru Road), which now coursed, in part, between Tucumán and Córdoba en route to Potosi. The isolation of Tucumán from the post-1860 focus of growth--the Littoral--ended with the 1875 arrival of the railroad. With it came the development of the sugar industry as the base of a large-scale agro-industrialism that distinguished Tucumán, like the wine industry of Mendoza, from the smaller and poorer sister cities of the Interior that were increasingly losing outside markets for their products to foreign merchandise introduced by rail from the Littoral. A second major rail line arrived in 1890, two years after a provincial railroad was opened.

The railroads reduced the costs of shipping heavy sugar mill machinery by some 90 percent, while protectionist policies of the national government and a growing national market for sugar further assured prosperity. Sugar plantations accounted for 5 percent of cultivated area in the valley in 1874 but 40 percent by 1882. By 1876 sugar and alcohol products made up over 30 percent of the value of provincial production, and by 1881, twenty-eight of thirty-four sugar mills were proximate to Tucumán. This, plus other agricultural production, gave the compact valley the highest density of rural population in Argentina. The city itself grew from 18,000 in 1869 to only 35,000 in 1895, but this did suggest the multifold economic growth in the immediate region. Tucumán was still Argentina's fifth largest city in 1914, and overwhelmingly the largest in the west (see Table 1.1).

The city continued to expand its gridiron to the north, west, and south of the colonial plat, aided by the 1905 introduction of the trolley. Industrial zones grew with the continued introduction of new industries, including textiles and motor vehicle production. In 1947 the city had 195,000 residents, thereafter gaining some as rural-to-urban migration increased but losing many others to Buenos Aires. By 1980 the enlarged metropolitan area had grown to only 497,000 (see Table 1.1). The sugar industry had been hard hit in the 1960s, when eleven of twenty-seven mills closed, forcing out-migration to the Littoral.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Andrews George Reid. 1980. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800-1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Aparicio Francisco de, and Horacio A. Difrieri, eds. 1958- 1963, 9 vols. La Argentina: Suma de Geografia. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Peuser.

Ferrer Aldo. 1967. The Argentine Economy: An Economic History of Argentina. Berkeley: University of California Press.

-37-

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Latin American Urbanization: Historical Profiles of Major Cities
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • 1: ARGENTINA 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Bibliography 37
  • 2: BOLIVIA 39
  • Introduction 39
  • Notes 60
  • References 60
  • 3: BRAZIL 62
  • Introduction 62
  • Note 104
  • References 104
  • 4: CHILE 106
  • Introduction 106
  • Notes 131
  • References 131
  • 5 - COLOMBIA 134
  • Introduction 134
  • Note 157
  • References 157
  • 6: COSTA RICA 159
  • Introduction 159
  • Note 171
  • References 171
  • 7: CUBA 173
  • Introduction 173
  • References 186
  • 8: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 188
  • Introduction 188
  • Note 213
  • Bibliography 214
  • 9: ECUADOR 215
  • Introduction 215
  • References 249
  • 10: EL SALVADOR 252
  • Introduction 252
  • Notes 270
  • References 270
  • 11: GUATEMALA 273
  • Introduction 273
  • Notes 290
  • References 291
  • 12: HAITI 294
  • Introduction 294
  • Note 311
  • References 311
  • 13: HONDURAS 313
  • Introduction 313
  • References 328
  • 14: JAMAICA 331
  • Introduction 331
  • References 347
  • 15: MEXICO 350
  • Introduction 350
  • References 391
  • 16: NICARAGUA 396
  • Introduction 396
  • References 414
  • 17: PANAMA 416
  • Introduction 416
  • Note 425
  • Bibliography 425
  • 18 - PARAGUAY 427
  • Introduction 427
  • Bibliography 444
  • 19: PERU 446
  • Introduction 446
  • Note 466
  • References 466
  • 20: URUGUAY 468
  • Introduction 468
  • Bibliography 484
  • 21: VENEZUELA 486
  • Introduction 486
  • Note 508
  • References 508
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 511
  • Index 517
  • ABOUT THE EDITOR AND CONTRIBUTORS 533
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