The American Fund for Public Service: Charles Garland and Radical Philanthropy, 1922-1941

By Gloria Garrett Samson | Go to book overview

day"; by the public schools, which are controlled by the small minority called big business, the capitalists; the imperialists; by the churches and synagogues, with "their smug complacent preachers"; by the moving pictures, the billboards, the meeting halls, the street corners, and the public squares, which were all controlled by the capitalists and their agents. Big business controls the means of communications, he said, including the railroads, telegraph, and telephones.

Under such conditions is it not absurd to maintain that there is such a thing in America of today as free political discussion? The whole atmosphere about us, the phrases we use, the information we have, the opinions we form, the prejudices we cherish--everything comes from the ceaseless mill which is tuned by the hirelings of capitalism.

The workers, he said, must understand their organized strength and "through discussion and interchange of opinion and education and the use of science and art and the development of real leadership, assert their economic brotherhood without brute violence and bloodshed." Then, when war threatens, the workers will lay down their tools and teach "our imperialist masters" the "limitations of their power." 17 Without being aware of it, of course, Magnes had articulated the agenda for the future Garland Fund.

The position that Magnes had assumed with his radical pacifist colleagues made it impossible for him to continue in a leadership position within the Jewish community. He had ceased to be a political Zionist during the war and repudiated the Balfour Declaration as imperialist. Increasingly drawn to the Socialist Zionists, who were building a cooperative society in Palestine without challenging the rights of the Arab inhabitants, Magnes adopted another unpopular cause by constantly inserting the Arab question into American Zionist discourse. 18

Anxious to inspect both European and Palestinian conditions, Magnes had planned his trip before Baldwin completed preparations for the nascent fund. Although Magnes planned to be gone for the rest of 1922, he expected to return and attend fund meetings. The other directors and the fund suffered from his absence.


NOTES
1.
New York Times (NYT), April 26, 1922, 9; April 29, 1922, sec. 1, pt. 2, 5; Baldwin to Frances Perkins, April 4, 1922; Nelles folder, both AFPS.
2.
Baldwin to DeSilver, Ward, Johnson, Thomas, Garland, June 8, 1922; Baldwin to Garland, May 11, 1922, May 17, 1922, all AFPS.
3.
Baldwin to Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations, May 16, 1922, May 29, 1922; Nelles press release July 8, 1922, all AFPS; James Gilbert, Designing the Industrial State: The Intellectual Pursuit of Collectivism in America 1880-1940 ( Chicago: Quadrangle, 1972), 46. While the AFPS had an eventual $2 million to distribute, the Carnegie Corporation (founded in 1911), worked with $125 million. See Robert H. Bremner, American Philanthropy ( Chicago: University of Chicago

-31-

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The American Fund for Public Service: Charles Garland and Radical Philanthropy, 1922-1941
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Labor Studies ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • 1 - An Inheritance Rejected 1
  • Notes 3
  • 2 - From Progressivism to Radicalism 5
  • Notes 12
  • 3 - The Aclu and a New Social Order 15
  • Notes 18
  • 4 - Free from the Bonds of Old Institutions 19
  • Notes 24
  • 5 - Workers Will Lay Down Their Tools 27
  • Notes 31
  • 6 - To Promote the Well-Being of Mankind 33
  • Notes 38
  • 7 - Pacifists as Radicals 41
  • Notes 46
  • 8 - It Takes Warm Hearts 49
  • Notes 56
  • 9 - Chosen to Box the Left Compass 59
  • Notes 63
  • 10 - A Sane Enough Radicalism 65
  • Notes 68
  • 11 - Spend It Here and Now 69
  • Notes 73
  • 12 - Scientific, Pragmatic, Efficient 75
  • Notes 81
  • 13 - Emancipation of Their Class in Every Sphere 83
  • Notes 90
  • 14 - Bolsheviks in Patriots' Clothing 93
  • Notes 100
  • 15 - Tempers Flare 103
  • Notes 109
  • 16 - The Rebel Girl Comes Aboard 111
  • Notes 115
  • 17 - Surveying the Left 117
  • Notes 122
  • 18 - Enemies on the Left 125
  • Notes 131
  • 19 - Education and Culture 133
  • Notes 139
  • 20 - Recipient Testimonials 141
  • Notes 147
  • 21 - Negro Work"" 149
  • Notes 155
  • 22 - Passaic 157
  • Notes 162
  • 23 - Vanguard Press 165
  • Notes 169
  • 24 - Friction Within and Without 171
  • Notes 177
  • 25 - Little Left to Repress 179
  • Notes 190
  • 26 - The Manifold Discriminations That Beset Him"" 193
  • Notes 201
  • 27 - Shift to Low Gear 205
  • Notes 216
  • 28 - We Did Quite a Lot of Good 219
  • Notes 224
  • Bibliography 227
  • Index 253
  • About the Author 265
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