Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey

By Javaid Saeed | Go to book overview

traditions to collect 7,397 "sound" ones, many of which are repeated in different contexts. The final count of his collection is 2,762 traditions. Another person who is credited with having collected "sound" traditions is Muslim bin Al Hajjaj (d. 261/ 875). His collection is said to be identical to Bukhari's except for some variation in the transmitters. 94

Besides these two "genuine books," there are the following four which have also been elevated to canonical rank: Sunna of Abu Daud (d. 2 75)), Jami of Abu Isa Muhammad al Tirmidhi (d. 2 79)), Sunna of Abu Abd Allah Muhammad bin Maja (d. 2 83)), and Sunna of Abu Abd Al-Rahman al Nasa'i (d. 303). Out of these four, Abu Daud's collection alone contains 4,800 traditions that are said to have been selected out of half a million. Besides these six, several others are in circulation. 95 The proliferation of so many traditions was a major consequence of, among other reasons, intergroup rivalries that developed in the early period of Islam. Thus, we read from Ibn Abi 1-Haddad (d. 655/ 1257), himself a Shi'ite, who candidly admits of fabrications:

Know that the origins of fabrications in fada'il traditions [reports containing the alleged merits of certain people or institutions) were due to the Shi'a, for they forged in the first instance traditions concerning their leader. Enmity towards their adversaries drove them to this fabrication. . . . When the Bakriyya (i.e. those favoring Abu Bakr) saw what the Shi'a had done, they fabricated for their own masters traditions to counter the former . . . When the Shi'a saw what the Bakriyya had done, they increased their efforts. . . . 96

Earlier we observed that in Muslim countries no systematic study of the Qur'an is carried out on a regular basis. We also observed that, for the Qur'an, success, in every sense of the word, in this life is vitally important. We have now found that the bulk of the so-called Islamic traditions, which have historically been elevated in importance second only to the Qur'an, are in fact forgeries and distortions. Yet, these traditions not only form the basis of a major portion of the Islamic curriculum in the traditional Islamic schools, but also regulate the conduct of Muslims in everyday life because of their pervasiveness. Therefore, Muslims have an urgent need to critically evaluate their intellectual Islamic past on the basis of the Qur'an. Because they have developed a peculiar psychological complex vis-à-vis the West, that past is defended as if it were their God. In that past, the greatest sensitivity surrounds the hadith. 97


CONCLUSION

In analyzing the phenomenon of modernization and development, many writers have emphasized secularization as the sine qua non for modernization. Islam, however, does not distinguish between the temporal and the spiritual; the

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Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Explaining Modernization 9
  • 3 - Religion and Modernization 25
  • Conclusion 43
  • 4 - Islam and Modernization 45
  • Conclusion 69
  • 5 - The Religiopolitical System of Pakistan and Modernizatton 73
  • Conclusion 112
  • 6 - The Religiopolitical System of Egypt and Modernization 117
  • Conclusion 154
  • 7 - The Religiopolitical System of Turkey and Modernization 157
  • Conclusion 196
  • 8 - Conclusion 197
  • Notes 209
  • Bibliography 247
  • Index 257
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