THE RELIGIOPOLITICAL SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN AND MODERNIZATTON
In this and the following two chapters we will analyze the religiopolitical systems and their impact on the modernization efforts of the countries under study. Already in Chapter 4 we have seen that, based on the teaching of the Qur'an, nothing in Islam is antithetical to development or modernization. We have also observed that gross misunderstanding exists in Islamic countries about the Qur'anic doctrine, especially in the minds of the ulema or the religious teachers. And since religious education has been in the hands of the ulema for the last millennia, they have created and cemented deep misunderstandings about Islam among the populations of these countries. The study in this chapter, as also in the subsequent two chapters, is therefore not an examination of Islam or how Islam has fared in the modern world. The study is of societies that are recognized as Islamic. It is a study of the treatment of Islam at the hands of these societies. It is not an examination of Islam at all. Chapter 4 has dealt with that part, insofar as it related to this study. In fact, none of the Islamic societies, as a whole, anywhere in the world, come close to be designated as Islamic, when evaluated on the basis of the Qur'an.
The background of the struggle and the creation of Pakistan have been covered in detail in numerous books and articles. 1 It was demanded and achieved on the basis of Islam, with social and economic considerations in mind. And it was meant to be a modern, progressive, country. Thus, the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah, in a broadcast in February 1948, stated that Pakistan's constitution would be of a democratic type embodying the essential principles of Islam. He then said: "Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. . . . In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic state--to be ruled by priests with a divine mission." 2
The question of Islam's role in Pakistan was taken up by the Constituent Assembly, as we will see shortly. Jinnah was also fully aware of the negative