THE RELIGIOPOLITICAL SYSTEM OF TURKEY AND MODERNIZATION
Turkey's case is somewhat different from the case in Pakistan and Egypt. It is similar to the extent that its population is overwhelmingly Muslim; it is different in that ever since its inception as a modern republic, Turkey has followed secularism as its main doctrine. It sought and implemented separation of religion and state as a state policy. Because of this difference, it offers an interesting comparison with the other two countries and other Muslim countries in general.
Turkey's study is also interesting and important because it has had the longest period of independent existence among Muslim countries in recent history. It has now been independent for seventy years. Indeed, if we consider the period of the Ottoman empire, the area that now forms Turkey has remained sovereign for over six centuries. After the First World War, the Turkish mainland was occupied by foreign troops for a brief period, but Mustafa Kemal Atatürk "was able to force the evacuation of foreign troops from the Turkish mainland, to negotiate an honorable settlement," and to maintain Turkey's sovereignty and independence. 1
Allied troops occupied Turkish territory following the Mudros Armistice signed on October 30, 1918, between the Allies and the Istanbul government. On August 10, 1920, the Allies signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Istanbul government, which was meant to destroy Turkey's independence. Thereafter the Allies were engaged in a running battle by the nationalists who were led by Mustafa Kemal. Following the defeat of the Allies, the Armistice of Mudania was signed on October 11, 1922. On July 24, 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Turkey and the Allies in which Turkey received almost everything determined by the National Pact ( January 12, 1920), which was the result of the two congresses held earlier on July 23 and September 4, 1919, chaired by Mustafa Kemal. 2 Our focus in this study, then, will be on the period from 1923 onward when the Ottoman empire was no more and Turkey emerged