the biomedical (and especially the pharmaceutical industry), without governmental influence.
The debate on medical education in Europe, largely promoted by international associations and organizations for medical education such as WHO, the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE), and the World Federation for Medical Education (WTME) has had little influence on medical education in the FRG. Whereas WHO's concepts of Health for All and the Edinburgh Declaration of the WFME are beginning to influence the thinking of leaders and institutions in the field as well as the educational policy of the government, these ideas are still unfamiliar to, or strongly opposed by, most of the professorate.
The most important foreign influence may well be the guidelines for compulsory postgraduate training for panel general practice issued by the EEC in 1986 ( European Economic Community 1986). According to these guidelines, member states must introduce (before 1995) a specific postgraduate training period of two years minimum for general practitioners working within the health insurance scheme. In the FRG, there is an inclination to extend this phase to three years. Because of this external decree, the national debate on this issue, which lasted for more than 30 years, may now come to a productive end.
For the coming decades, undergraduate medical education in the FRG will continue to be controlled by the complex interaction of government and special interest groups described above. On the political level, concern for integrating the education and health care systems of the former GDR with those of the former FRG, as well as the search for measures to control growth in the number of physicians and the costs of health care, will dominate policy. These occupations, together with the strong preference of the professorate for traditional, discipline- oriented, hospital-based programs, make major innovations of curricular content, organization, or instructional methodology unlikely in the foreseeable future.
Deneke J. F. V. 1988. Federal Republic of Germany. In H. Viefhues., ed. Medical manpower in the European community. New York: Springer-Verlag.
European Economic Community. 1986. Guideline 86/457. In Amisblatt für die Europdische Gemeinschaft. L 267/26. Brussels 19.9.
Flexner A. 1912. Medical education in Europe. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Bulletin no. 6. New York.
Gewerkschaft Ö. T. V., ed. 1982. Vorschldge und Forderungen der Gewerkschaft ÖTV zur ärztlichen Aus--und Weiterbildung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Stuttgart.
Göbel E., and S. Remstedt. 1991. Leiyhden zur Studienrefonnjiir Medizinstudierende. Frankfurt a. M.