Mobility Programme for University Studies (TEMPUS), which have promoted exchanges of experiences and a more homogeneous approach to medical education, even if on a still limited scale. Both programs encourage circulation of students and teachers in various European universities participating in Interuniversity Cooperative Programmes (ICP). ERASMUS and TEMPUS provide travel and accommodation expenses for participants. The WHO policy of "Health for All" and the Edinburgh Declaration are not incorporated in the criteria for training programs, because they are not widely known and because their impact on the teachers' approach has not been significant ( Menu and Garcia- Barbero 1991; Ghetti 1991).
Competencies of graduates for the next century are still debated and have not been yet defined at the national level, but it is thought that with the increasing unification of the European countries, progressive educational policy will be discussed and agreed upon at a multinational level. Up to now, educational technology has played a limited role, although a national research program on computer-aided learning in medical education has now involved 14 medical schools. ( Ghetti 1988a; Lucchelli 1991; Fondazione Smith Kline 1981)
A new health paradigm is not yet apparent and health care is still very much focused on high-technology, and extremely specialized, medical care. However, economic constraints are rapidly emerging and regional governments are already taking steps to reduce costs of medical care. A reorientation of health care, with more emphasis on prevention and primary care, is therefore to be expected in the near future.
Bompiani A., P. Carinci, and V. Ghetti, eds. 1992. Facolta di medicina e Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (II) (Faculty of Medicine and national health service ([II]; in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline.
Fondazione Smith Kline. 1984. Introduzione alla Pedagogia Medica (Introduction to medical education. (in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.
-----. 1983. La sperimentazione didattica nella Facoltà di Medicina (I) (Didactic experimentation in medical schools ([I] in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.
-----. 1981. La Facoltà di Medicina verso il futuro (The medical school facing the future, in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.
Ghetti V., ed. 1991a. La prevenzione: un problema da governare. (Disease prevention: a problem to be faced; in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline, Franco Angeli Series.
-----. 1991b. Il sistema sanitario europeo senza frontiere (The European health care system without barriers, in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline, Franco Angeli Series.
-----. 1988a. Bisogno di salute e risposta della Medicina: ruolo dei servizi (The relevance of medicine to present health needs: The role of health services and medical education; in Italian). Franco Angeli Series: Fondazione Smith Kline.
-----. 1988b. Nuove tendenze nella formazione del medico (New trends in medical education; in Italian). Franco Angeli Series: Fondazione Smith Kline.