International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

21
The Netherlands

PETER A. J. BOUHUIJS

The Netherlands is a small country in Western Europe of approximately forty thousand square kilometers. Many areas of the country have been reclaimed from the sea. Twenty-seven percent of the country lies below sea level, and about 60 percent of the population lives in this area. The country is densely populated, increasing from about four million in 1880 to about 15. 1 million in 1991 (442 people per square kilometer). About two-thirds of the population lives in urban or suburban areas. For many years the birthrate was higher in the Netherlands than in neighboring countries. This factor, combined with a low infant mortality and a favorable life expectancy, produced a considerable annual population growth until 1970. Since 1970, however, the situation has changed. In a few years the birthrate declined sharply, from 16 per thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12.9 per thousand inhabitants in 1976, as a reflection of the changes in attitude toward birth control and of other changes in life-style. Population forecasts proved to be dramatically wrong; the current population is about 15 percent less than expected twenty years ago. Due to increased immigration and a slight increase in the birthrate over the past few years (13.2 per thousand in 1990), the population will increase with a growth rate of about 0.5 percent during this decade.

Industrial and trade activities are the most important income sources for the national economy. According to generally accepted indices of national health conditions, the Netherlands is in a rather good position in comparison with many other countries. Perinatal death is 9.6 per thousand live births ( 1990), among the lowest rates in the world. According to the Statistisch Jaarboek, average life expectancy at birth was 73.8 years for men and 80.1 for women in 1991 ( 1992). The sex difference in life expectancy is mainly due to the higher risks of lung cancer, heart failure and traffic accidents among men. A generous social system has resulted in a society in which almost everybody lives in housing which has a safe water supply, sanitary facilities, and electricity. Irrespective of their income situation, the population has access to a sophisticated network of health services.

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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