International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview



Nigeria is a Sub-Saharan African country with a 1988 population of 112 million, distributed 85 percent in rural areas and 15 percent in urban centers. The nation's birthrate of 50.4 per 1,000 (world average 29) is countered by an infant mortality rate of 114 per 1,000 live births and a death rate of 17.1 per 1,000 (compared with the world average of 11); projections made in 1988 were for a population of 119 million in 1990 and 166 million by the year 2000. Life expectancy for males is 46.9 and for females 50.0; with expenditure for health at 3.3 percent of the GDP ( World Almanac Supplement 1988). Indigenous medical traditions were the basis of Nigerian health care before the introduction of Western medicine. Traditional medicine still plays a role, especially in the rural areas. English is the official national language. The Nigerian Minister of Health noted in 1990 that:

Although Nigeria has no accurate data, publications from Nigerian universities and surveys conducted by various government agencies provide a good picture of the state of people's health. These sources indicate that the major health problems in Nigeria are infectious diseases, especially diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory tract infection in children. Malaria is a major cause of death for children under five. Malnutrition and poor health practices are prevalent among the population. Pregnancy and childbirth continue to constitute a major threat to the lives of women between 15 and 45 years of age. It is also estimated that the country's high mortality rates for all ages are similar to those of other developing countries. ( Alike-Catha 1990)


The health care delivery system in Nigeria evolved from the public health services originating in the British Army Medical Service ( Makanjuola, Osuntokun, and Erihosho 1990). Following integration of the army with the colonial government, medical care was extended to local civil servants and their families and eventually to the local population living close to government stations. Further extension of Western medicine occurred following World War II under the


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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511


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