International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

25
Russia (Former USSR)

FELIX VARTANIAN

This chapter was prepared at a time of extraordinarily rapid changes and profound economic, political and social transformation, affecting the very foundation of Russian society. The outcomes for the system of health care and medical education are difficult to predict. The information presented here reflects the situation at the entire country level as of January 1992. Since the original submission of this chapter, the republics which formerly comprised the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics continue to evolve. The information presented in this chapter presents an overview of Russia as it was and the direction in which it is moving.


OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM

The organization of health services within territories of the former Soviet Union encompasses a broad complex of socioeconomic and medical measures. These are based on a system of national, public and individual contributions implemented to maintain and steadily improve the health of the population. The right of all citizens to free health care is embodied in the constitution1 of the former USSR. Health care is guaranteed through free and qualified medical services, provided by the state health institutions. The Ministry of Health in each republic is responsible for the overall control and coordination of health system development, while these functions are performed by the health departments and their local branches in autonomous regions.

Preventive health services and medical care are provided by a total of more than seven million health workers of different categories, including 44.4 physicians per 10,000 population. Such a high physician/population ratio is not

____________________
1
A new constitution was approved in November 1993.

-359-

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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