Russia (Former USSR)
This chapter was prepared at a time of extraordinarily rapid changes and profound economic, political and social transformation, affecting the very foundation of Russian society. The outcomes for the system of health care and medical education are difficult to predict. The information presented here reflects the situation at the entire country level as of January 1992. Since the original submission of this chapter, the republics which formerly comprised the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics continue to evolve. The information presented in this chapter presents an overview of Russia as it was and the direction in which it is moving.
The organization of health services within territories of the former Soviet Union encompasses a broad complex of socioeconomic and medical measures. These are based on a system of national, public and individual contributions implemented to maintain and steadily improve the health of the population. The right of all citizens to free health care is embodied in the constitution1 of the former USSR. Health care is guaranteed through free and qualified medical services, provided by the state health institutions. The Ministry of Health in each republic is responsible for the overall control and coordination of health system development, while these functions are performed by the health departments and their local branches in autonomous regions.
Preventive health services and medical care are provided by a total of more than seven million health workers of different categories, including 44.4 physicians per 10,000 population. Such a high physician/population ratio is not____________________