International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

28
United Kingdom

LAURA R. AZIZ MICHAEL S. CULLEN

The United Kingdom, which comprises Great Britain ( England, Scotland, and Wales) and Northern Ireland, was once the center of a worldwide empire, on whose colonies "the sun never set." This island nation has had a global impact on medical education far greater than its size or numbers alone would predict. The United Kingdom also has been a pioneer in instituting a comprehensive health care delivery system and supporting the primary care general practitioner.


General Demographic Profile

In 1990, the United Kingdom had a population of 57.4 million ( England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland), with 91 percent in urban areas and 9 percent in rural districts. There was approximately one physician for every seven hundred persons, relatively equally distributed throughout the country; this included one general practitioner (ambulatory care) per 1,900 persons. Birthrate per 1000 population was 13.9, and death rate was 11.2 per 1,000; the infant mortality rate was 7.9 per 1000 live births ( 1990). In 1988, life expectancy at birth was 72.4 years for males and 78 years for females. The per capita GNP was $8,570 US ( 1988). Virtually 100 percent of the population is literate.


OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM

The British National Health Services (NHS) is both comprehensive and highly centralized. This comprehensiveness is dual: it provides universal coverage to the whole population and coverage includes the whole range of health services. The British NHS differs from other national systems in organizational structure and in financial mechanisms that avoid the complexity of multiple independent financial sources ( Roemer 1991).

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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