International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

admissions, the annualization of the academic organization and control of the curriculum. The establishment of programs aimed at ambulatory care and the community is mainly due to the hospital crisis. A follow-up study is needed to determine if these are just temporary reforms or if they will lead to real change.


ISSUES AND TRENDS

Medical education in Venezuela has its main challenge in responding to a series of political issues. Decentralization of health services at the federal level gives added responsibility to the states and counties and requires integrating the country's multiple levels of services: systems operating under the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (free services), Social Security (prepaid services), and private enterprises (fully paid services). This national system would be oriented by criteria of extensive coverage, rational costs, quality, and efficiency.

Medical education should respond to the needs of both public and private institutions. It should also orient its educational services to prepare future health professionals to fully understand the new challenges of financing the increasing cost of health services and cost-containment efforts through national insurance practices, private insurance endeavors, and functional improvement of profit or nonprofit health care organizations.

Populational health (community and environmental), with emphasis on health promotion and prevention of disease, will be a social requirement that will substitute in the future for the current emphasis on healing and rehabilitation.


REFERENCES

Asociación Venezolana de Facultades de Medicina (AVEFAM). 1992. VIII Seminario Nacional de Educación Médica. Notas. Tucacas, Venezuela: AVEFAM.

-----. 1987a. VII Seminario Nacional de Educación Médica. Memorias. Maracaibo.

-----. 1987b. Aspectos Cuantitativos y Cualitativos de la Formación de los Médicos en Venezuela. Ed. T. Garrido. Caracas.

-----. 1978. Seminario Utilización y Formación del Médica General. Memorias. Publicación 7. Caracas: AVEFAM.

-----. 1967. Tercer Seminario de Educación Médica. Primaera Conferencia de la Asociación Venezolana de Facultades de Medicina. Publicación 2. Caracas.

AVEFAM-FEPAFEM. 1974. Quinta Conferencia Panamericana de Educació Médica. Memorias. Caraballeda, Venezuela.

Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social. 1986. VII Congreso Venezolano de Salud Pública. Memorias. Caracas: Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social.

Oficina de Planificación del Sector Universitario. 1987. Boletín Estadístico no. 12. Tomos I y II. Caracas: Oficina de Planificación del Sector Universitario.

Universidad Central de Venezuela. 1961. Bases y doctrina para una reforma de la educación médica en Venezuela. Memorias. Ed. C. G. Yépez. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

-----. 1991. Facultadad de Medicina Informe de gestión, 1987-1990. Tomos I y II. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.

-428-

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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