Speech and Speech Disorders in Western Thought before 1600

By Ynez Violé O'Neill | Go to book overview

5
Galen

GALEN RECOGNIZED, As had Aristotle, three general types of sounds made by living creatures. Reflecting the Stoic influence, his categories were more selective than were his predecessors', however, as he did not consider nonvocal sound. His three divisions were voice, articulation, and human speech. 1 Voice, the basis of the other two, was effected by the larynx, the muscles which moved it, and the nerves which brought this motive power to the larynx from the brain. 2 Articulation was produced by the action of the tongue, nose, lips, and teeth. 3 Human speech possessed no distinctive instruments, but was created from voice and articulation, and differed from all other noises in that it was the method by which people conversed with each other.

This distinction is clearly manifest in the Greek text. When Galen discusses human speech, he refers to the aude or to the logos of the patient. When he is discussing the voice or the operation of the vocal instruments, he uses the word phone, and the term articulation is either arthra or dialektos. 4 Thus, in writing of his experiments conducted only upon animals or of his animal dissections, he never uses the words logos or aude.

Galen's investigations of the vocal instruments are in the seventh book of the treatise On the Use of Parts and the sixth book of the treatise On the Sites of Disease. The teleological orientation of the former is obvious, as it was designed not as an exposition of the mechanics of phonation, but as a demonstration of the dual purpose of the instruments of respiration. Therefore, in this text Galen was more concerned with refuting the doctrines of Erasistratus

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Speech and Speech Disorders in Western Thought before 1600
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations ix
  • Key to Transliteration xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • 1 - The Pre-Hippocratic Writings 12
  • Notes 17
  • 2 - The Hippocratic Corpus 19
  • Notes 29
  • 3 - The Systematists 33
  • Notes 40
  • 4 - The Hellenistic Philosophies 45
  • Notes 53
  • 5 - Galen 56
  • Notes 65
  • 6 - The Patristic Age 68
  • Notes 89
  • 7 - The Compilations of the East 95
  • Notes 114
  • 8 - The Age of Translations 119
  • Notes 139
  • 9 - The Compilations of the West 145
  • Notes 170
  • 10 - The Turning Point 178
  • Notes 202
  • 11 - Conclusion 211
  • Bibliography 217
  • Subject Index 235
  • Name Index 243
  • About the Author 249
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