The Evolution of Educational Theory in the United States

By Dickson A. Mungazi | Go to book overview

their course. The second conclusion is that, once the elements of the thought processes were in place, the Age of Reason raised human consciousness to a level never attained in the past. This in turn elevated social institutions to a level where they served human needs more efficiently than in the past. American society became what it did because of the role individuals played. The evolution of the theory of education made it possible for these individuals to play that role well.


NOTES
1.
Instead of discussing the Revolution as an event that took place at a specific time, this chapter refers to it as a period of time beginning with the Boston Massacre in March 1770 and followed by the action that the Continental Congress took in September 1774 to defend American rights not to import goods from Britain as of December 1, 1774. The Revolution officially ended with the signing of the peace treaty in Ghent on April 19, 1783, thus making it possible for the last British troops to evacuate New York on November 25 of that year. Therefore, one can say that the Revolutionary period lasted from 1770 to 1783.
2.
Gerald L. Gutek, An Historical Introduction to American Education (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1991), p. 23.
3.
Historians seem to agree that the Enlightenment began about 1600 and lasted until about 1800. This was a period of time when many people worshipped reason. Some people even raised altars to the Goddess of Reason to have more influence on political, social, and economic developments.
4.
Gutek, An Historical Introduction to American Education, p. 24.
5.
John D. Pulliam and James van Patten, History of Education in America, 6th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill, 1995), p. 42.
6.
Ibid., p. 43.
7.
Silas Deane was an American patriot and diplomat who was prominent in events leading to the Revolutionary War. In March 1776 the Continental Congress sent him to France to buy war supplies. Deane was recalled in 1778 to give an account of his financial transactions. But no evidence of wrong-doing was found, making Paine's charges unfounded. This discredited him so badly that his reputation was damaged, and he was therefore forced to resign in disgrace.
8.
This fact brought discredit to Paine when he made charges against Silas Deane.
9.
Edmund Burke, a social reformer of major proportions, is credited with the statement, "For evil to continue, all it requires is for good people to do nothing." This view of the action that Burke urged is quite typical of the thought process of the Age of Reason.
10.
There were two members of the Pitt family who served as prime ministers, father and son--William Pitt Sr., who served from 1766 to 1768, and William Pitt Jr., who served from 1782 to 1792.
11.
Indeed, the guillotine was used for the first time in 1792. It was named after its inventor, Joseph Guillotine ( 1738-1814), a medical doctor who argued that persons condemned to death could be executed mercifully and painlessly by using the guillotine. Like proponents of the death penalty today, Guillotine did not know, or

-80-

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The Evolution of Educational Theory in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The Origins of the Theory of Western Education 15
  • Notes 34
  • 2 - Theory During the Colonial Period 37
  • Notes 57
  • 3 - Theory During the Revolutionary Period 61
  • Notes 80
  • 4 - Theory During the Common School Movement 83
  • 5 - The Theory of Secondary, Higher, and Teacher Education 103
  • Notes 121
  • 6 - The Courts and the Theory of Education for African Americans 125
  • 7 - Theory to Address National Problems: From Warren G. Harding to Bill Clinton 153
  • Notes 181
  • Conclusion 210
  • Notes 211
  • Selected Bibliography 215
  • Index 237
  • About the Author 251
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