The Theory of Secondary, Higher, and Teacher Education
A teaching profession cannot be established on a basis which only covers the work of the common schools. The knowledge that is to be conveyed to the child is not all that is required on the part of the teacher.
-- Andrew Traper, 1890
The evolution of the theory of secondary education was a much slower process than that of the common school movement. When John Eliot ( 1604-1690), who had graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1621, arrived in Boston in 1633 he shared some ideas about how education in the New World could be improved. He succeeded in persuading the authorities to pass legislation to direct the course of education. The result was that the Massachusetts General Court passed legislation in 1642 and 1647 along the lines that Eliot had suggested. As unique, exciting, and innovative as these two pieces of legislation were, they were overshadowed by more pressing needs to survive in the hostile wilderness. Although their impact was considerable, they did not form a sustainable pattern of development until after the Revolutionary War. Although the colonial society did what it considered necessary to promote primary education and higher education, there was little that was done to promote the development of secondary education.
Primary education was developed during the colonial period because it was considered essential to reading, writing, arithmetic, and moral and religious values. Higher education was developed because it was considered essential to the training of individuals to enter the ministry and become preachers and leaders in the community. But there was no immediate purpose for the development of secondary education. During the colonial period the Latin Grammar school was the equivalent of high school. However, the Latin Grammar school did not meet the needs of individuals and society in the same way that primary education and higher education did in their