Economic Justice in Africa: Adjustment and Sustainable Development

By George W. Shepherd; Karamo N. M. Sonko | Go to book overview

much more successful in constraining demand than they have been in developing increased and diversified production. This imbalance between food production and demand has aggravated the decline of goods and services and is thereby fostering deterioration of human welfare, human rights, and most basically the right to food.

The information presented in this chapter is not new. These facts have been stated before and are no longer startling. Yet because these concerns have been voiced by others and have gone unheeded, there is an obvious need for continued research into alternative policy options not only to increase the overall supply of food but also to ensure that all persons have sufficient entitlements to create an effective demand for, and equitable distribution of, available food.


NOTES
1.
Bonnie K. Campbell and John Loxley, Structural Adjustment in Africa ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989), p. 1.
2.
Amartya Sen, "Famines," World Development 8 ( 1980): 613-621.
3.
Carl K. Eicher, "African Agricultural Development Strategies." in Francis Stewart , Sanjaya Lall, and Samual Wangwe, eds., Alternative Development Strategies in Sub- Saharan Africa ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), p. 100.
4.
Raymond F. Hopkins, "Reform in the International Food Aid Regime: The Role of Consensual Knowledge," International Organization 46, no. 1 (Winter 1992): 254.
5.
Barbara Denham and Colin Hines, Agribusiness in Africa ( Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1984), p. 137.
6.
Susan George, A Fate Worse than Debt: The World Financial Crisis and the Poor ( London: Penguin Books, 1988); Giovanni Cornia, Richard Jolly, and Francis Stewart, eds., Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987); see also yearly World Bank Development Reports and specific World Bank publications dealing with poverty; see publications by UNDP, by UNESCO, and by numerous NGO organizations working in the fields of development, food, and so on.
7.
Per Pinstrup-Anderson, "The Impact of Macroeconomic Adjustment: Food Security and Nutrition," in Simon Commander, ed., Structual Adjustment and Agriculture: Theory and Practice in Africa and Latin America ( London: Overseas Development Institute, 1989), pp. 91-102.
8.
Georges Chapelier and Hamid Tabatabai, Development and Adjustment: Stabilization, Structural Adjustment and UNDP Policy ( New York: UN, 1989), p. 18.
9.
Ibid. See also Paul Streeten, "Structural Adjustment: A Survey of the Issues and Options," World Development 15, no. 12, December 1987.
10.
Cornia Jolly, and Stewart, Adjustment with a Human Face, p. 50.
12.
Chapelier and Tabatabai, Development and Adjustment, p. 20. These purposes are based on the original mandate for both the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank; check Articles of Agreement for both institutions.
13.
For a distinction see chapter 5 in this volume.
14.
World Bank and United Nations Development Program, Africa's Adjustment and Growth in the 1980s ( Washington, D.C: World Bank, 1989), p. iii.

-133-

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