Can Democracies Fly in Space? The Challenge of Revitalizing the U.S. Space Program

By W. D. Kay | Go to book overview

complex, large-scale technical systems. The space shuttle had to meet not only NASA's internal technical standards, but the demands of a variety of agencies and institutions, each with differing (if not divergent) goals as well. These same types of problems have confronted Freedom, the Hubble Space Telescope, and many other projects. Under such conditions, the fact that a new and untried technology would fail to operate as expected should come as no surprise.

This is not meant to suggest that NASA is merely an innocent bystander in the making of space policy or that it bears no responsibility for what has happened to the program. Many of the specific problems of the shuttle's operations--launch procedures, internal communications, attention to safety, and other issues laid out by the Rogers Commission's investigation of the Challenger accident-clearly originated with NASA. 88 Nevertheless, given the circumstances that surrounded its development, it is difficult to see how all of the breakdowns, delays, and other mishaps that have characterized STS are exclusively the agency's fault. Rather, a more accurate (not to mention fairer) assessment would seem to be that several agencies have contributed to the shuttle's problems and that it is a failure of policy broadly understood, not just that of a single organization.

In order to understand fully how the program has gotten so far off track, it is necessary to account for the actions of a number of individuals, organizations, and institutions--not just those of NASA. In short, the overall environment in which U.S. space policy operates must be examined in much greater detail.


NOTES
1.
Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies ( New York: Basic Books, 1984).
2.
W. Richard Scott, Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981).
3.
F. W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management ( 1911); H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1946); Luther H. Gulick and L. Urwick, Papers in the Science of Administration ( New York: Institute for Public Administration, 1936).
4.
W. Richard Scott, "The Organization of Environments: Network, Cultural, and Historical Elements," in John W. Meyer and W. Richard Scott (eds.), Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality ( Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1983), pp. 155-175.
5.
James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).
6.
Paul C. Nystrom and William H. Starbuck, Adapting Organizations to Their Environments ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1981); HenryMintzberg

-62-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Can Democracies Fly in Space? The Challenge of Revitalizing the U.S. Space Program
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Part I - Introduction: WHERE DID WE GO WRONG? 1
  • 1: A Program Adrift 3
  • 2 - In Search of the Magic Bullet: Critiques of U.S. Space Policy 13
  • Notes 28
  • Part II - THE SPACE PROGRAM FROM THE GROUND UP 37
  • 3 - Nasa: The Eye of the Storm 39
  • Notes 62
  • 4 - And a Cast of Thousands 69
  • Notes 94
  • Notes 104
  • CONCLUSION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THE DEMOCRATIC DILEMMA 120
  • Notes 122
  • Part III - PROSPECTS FOR REFORM 127
  • 6 - A World Without Borders 129
  • Notes 148
  • 7 - From Henry Ford to Captain Kirk 161
  • Notes 181
  • Bibliography 197
  • Index 237
  • About the Author 245
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 248

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.