International Handbook on Race and Race Relations

By Jay A. Sigler | Go to book overview

common tendency for contract market-oriented relations to replace traditional status relations. As a result, the indigenous and immigrant groups had to create their own institutions and social organizations to take advantage of such economic opportunities as were available to them.

It was in this pattern of response to these opportunities that the perceptions and conception of race as an independent variable are to be traced. Because of the political constraints imposed on the indigenous population by indirect rule and because they were primarily confined to the subsistence sector of the economy, they were unable to develop socioeconomic institutions to meet the demands of the capitalist market situation in the modern economic sector. Moreover, because they were supposedly protected by treaty obligations by the colonial government with whom they shared token political and administrative power, their inability to participate in the modern sector was attributed to their "backwardness" by the immigrant groups. To this extent, the stereotypes and ideology of the "lazy native" and his inherent inferiority to compete economically with the immigrant groups as a race, which were propagated by the colonial government in the first place, came to be believed by the immigrant groups and, indeed, by the indigenous group itself. On the other hand, the Chinese, having been left entirely to themselves to survive, responded in ways that particularly emphasized their "Chineseness." Operating as immigrants in the context of the colonial situation, they developed norms and values that stressed ethnic solidarity as a means of achieving economic survival and mobility. It is not difficult for this response pattern to be seen as peculiarly "Chinese" and hence to be attributed as a characteristic of the Chinese race as a whole. Race consciousness between the Chinese and indigenous population was further reinforced (1) because of the small family-type economic business units which precluded the employment of outsiders, and (2) because the socioeconomic distance between the two groups was seen as being particularly marked. Finally, the Indians, being unable to assert themselves either politically or economically, and accordingly not a threat to the indigenous population, were not perceived in the context of a race relations situation. For their part, the Indians responded by separating themselves from the other groups and living an isolated existence.


NOTES
1.
Ernst Moritz Manasse, Max Weber on Race, Social Research 14 ( June 1947): 191-221 (italics added).
2.
Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 51.
3.
Manasse, Max Weber, pp. 191-221.
4.
C. E. R. Abraham, "Race Relations in West Malaysia with Special Reference to Modern Political and Economic Development."

-163-

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International Handbook on Race and Race Relations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Notes xviii
  • AUSTRALIA 1
  • Bibliography 20
  • BRAZIL 23
  • Notes 36
  • Notes 39
  • CANADA 43
  • Notes 59
  • Notes 63
  • FIJI Ralph Premdas 67
  • Notes 97
  • Notes 99
  • FRANCE 101
  • Bibliography 112
  • INDIA 117
  • Bibliography 126
  • JAPAN 129
  • Bibliography 152
  • MALAYSIA 155
  • Notes 163
  • Notes 164
  • NETHERLANDS 167
  • Notes 187
  • Notes 189
  • NEW ZEALAND 191
  • Notes 209
  • Notes 211
  • SINGAPORE 213
  • Notes 229
  • Notes 230
  • SOUTH AFRICA 233
  • Notes 258
  • Bibliography 261
  • SUDAN 263
  • Notes 278
  • Notes 279
  • SWITZERLAND 281
  • Notes 296
  • Notes 298
  • THAILAND Suchitra Punyaratabandhu-Bhakdi and Juree Vichit-Vadakdan 301
  • Notes 318
  • Notes 319
  • TRINIDAD 321
  • Notes 333
  • Notes 335
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 339
  • Notes 362
  • Notes 367
  • UNITED KINGDOM 369
  • Notes 390
  • Bibliography 393
  • UNITED STATES 395
  • Notes 416
  • Notes 420
  • WEST GERMANY 423
  • Notes 440
  • Notes 443
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 449
  • APPENDIX: RACIAL/ETHNIC DIVISIONS 455
  • Index 467
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 479
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