The Effort-Net Return Model
The number of different models of human motivation is many--too many. Unfortunately, few of these models adequately define and describe the components and component relationships which constitute their structure. The list continues to grow without periodic refinement and consolidation and without attempts to synthesize motivation concepts with other segments of behavioral science and, for that matter, with the domains of science outside the behavioral area. But the various models of motivation can be integrated. They are not in significant conflict with one another.
This chapter introduces a construct that stresses conceptual clarification and the integration of theory. Analysis of the construct leads to identification and explanation of some phenomena previously avoided, or neglected, by motivation theory and to identification of a considerable number of practical means to pursue in attempting to motivate the human being.
Motivation is a psychological force--analogous to a physical force in that it is a vector quantity possessing both magnitude and direction. Motivation is the amount of effort that one desires to expend in a given direction (toward a goal). The amount of effort one does expend to reach a goal is assumed, in the absence of the imposition of constraints on effort expenditure, to be in direct proportion to the amount of effort one desires to expend. Alternatively stated, and again neglecting constraints, the amount of effort (energy) one actually expends in pursuit of a goal is in direct proportion to the magnitude of the force that causes the expenditure.