Ethnic Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

By Mohammed E. Ahrari | Go to book overview
5. the belated recognition by the education system and the mass media, of the potential cultural advantages to be found in the American pluralism (no longer a "melting pot" but a mosaic).

There is also a growing realization that pluralism does not endanger unity of the American society, but enriches through various cultural and societal inputs. They are provided by differentiated origins but are essentially united and loyal members of the nation. Hence there is all likelihood that at this stage in American history, the ethnic organizations and their inputs on both the national and international scene will continue. The same should fully apply to the Polish American Congress.


NOTES
1.
"Poland," Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna (PWN: Warsaw, 1967)
2.
The first Polish settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. They were the glass- and tar-makers who were brought to start the first American industry there. The American Revolution attracted participation of scores of Polish allies (e.g., the most prominent of them being General T. Kosciuszko, of Saratoga and West Point engineering fame, and General K. Pulaski, who died fighting for the American revolutionary cause at Savannah). The subsequent military operations also saw Polish participation (e.g., in the Battle of San Jacinto for Texas independence, Poles manned the artillery). In the American Civil War some 5,000 Poles served in the Union Army. Bogdan Grzelonski, Polacy w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki 1771-1865 ( Warszawa [ Warsaw]: Interpress, 1976). Longin Pastusiak, Polacy w zaraniu Stanow Zjednoczonych ( Warszawa [ Warsaw]: Wiedza Powszechna, 1977). Andrzej Brozek, Slazacy w Teksasie ( Warszawa [ Warsaw]: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1972).
3.
R. F. Leslie, ed., The History of Poland since 1863 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980). Joseph Slabey Roucek, Poles in the United States (Gdynia: Baltic Institute, 1937). The mass migration from Poland de facto was stopped by 1924 (only some 7,200 Poles per year were allowed to enter the United States after the introduction of the ethnic quotas). Even the post-World War II wave brought only 150,000 to 200,000 new immigrants into the by then 90 percent American-born Polonia of some six million.
4.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts ( New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1986).
5.
S. Lam, ed., Podreczna Encyklopedia Powszechna ( Paris: Polish Library, 1954).
6.
By 1914 the several million strong Polish community in the United States was indeed called the "fourth province" of Poland (after three partitioned parts). The Polish diaspora around the world equalled then one third of the Polish nation.
7.
P. Wandycz, The Lands of Partitioned Poland 1795-1918. History of East Central Europe, vol. 6 ( Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974).
8.
Ibid.
9.
Donald Pienkos ", The Polish American Congress--An Appraisal," Polish American Studies 36, no. 2 ( 1979): 5-43.
10.
Ibid.

-98-

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