during development. Field dependence-independence was accordingly now placed in the broader framework of differentiation. ( 1981, 18-19)
Finally, from time to time researchers have investigated the relationship between problem-solving success and feelings about self ( Bloom and Broder, 1951; Coor and Somerfield, 1975). In general, studies report that pupils who are successful at problem-solving tasks make positive comments about themselves. On the other hand, pupils who find problem solving tasks troublesome make negative comments about themselves. Indications are that self-rejecting attitudes can produce negative consequences for learning; while self-supporting attitudes can ensure positive consequences. Classroom demands for problemsolving call for thoughtful preparation and presentation of content by teachers together with the utilization of a variety of media and teaching styles, supported by well-balanced testing procedures that enable field dependent and field independent pupils to demonstrate through their performance that learning has occurred.
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