Many friends and colleagues have influenced my thinking as I wrote this book, but none more than my friend and colleague, Fred Cuny. Acting as my adviser, he went to the field as part of USAID's efforts to design broad strategies for dealing with four major emergencies -- Kuwait, Northern Iraq, Somalia, and Ethiopia. Although he did not live to read the final draft, his own thinking was evolving in much the same direction as mine on one of the central arguments of this essay: the need for strong U.S. government leadership in the international response to complex humanitarian emergencies and the need for a comprehensive strategy that would change the course of conflict for the better. As Gene Dewey once remarked, Fred Cuny was one of the few indispensable people in humanitarian work; his loss will be felt for many years to come.
Among those who read part or all of the manuscript and made many helpful suggestions to improve it were Gene Dewey, John Prendergast, Dayton Maxwell, Rich Bissell, Henrietta Holsman Fore, Steve Commins, Bill Garvelink, Fred Cole, and Walter Kansteiner. I particularly thank Bob Seiple, the president of World Vision, U.S., for his encouragement and support over the past two years, along with his deep and continuing interest in the issues raised in this book. Although she did not read the manuscript because of heavy press of duties at InterAction, Julia Taft was and remains a major influence on my own thinking about humanitarian issues. As my immediate predecessor as di-