an ad hocracy, where they are present but attenuated in the extreme, and often less important than informal teamwork.
Organizational changes are usually driven by management discomfort, a sense in the minds of key line managers that something is not right with the organization. While a structural change alone may provide a solution, more often reorganization is only a distraction if the cause of the problem is not well diagnosed. Quite often the real cause of the problem is not structural, or is only partly structural and is partly a result of other weaknesses or maladaptations to changes in the organization's environment. The task of diagnosing the organization's illness, its specific current problem(s), and finding solutions is another key function of the management analyst. The process of this diagnosis and prescription, called a management study, may result in procedural changes, policy changes, or programmatic changes, rather than or along with structural changes. In addition to organizational consulting, management studies are at the very heart of the management analyst's function.