the organization. The QMBs are a permanent structure, like the ESB, and play a key role in defining the processes to be improved and in implementing changes. Process action teams (PATs) are the work groups that analyze the work process or system and propose improvements. PATs consist of representatives from the various horizontal and vertical components of the organization involved in the process. Other structures or groups may be established depending on the needs of the particular organization.
Thus, TQM, which has recently become a watchword to improving organization productivity, is based on principles and theory from various disciplines including management, behavioral science, and industrial engineering. The strength of TQM may be its interdisciplinary nature, which draws on the best of both humanistic and scientific paradigms and qualitative and quantitative disciplines to provide a holistic methodology for improving quality and productivity. As Deming book, Out of the Crisis suggests, TQM may offer the last great hope of U.S. organizations in our increasingly competitive world. The management analyst who is to function effectively in today's environment must be thoroughly familiar with TQM.