J. Read, Lattakoo, 14 March 1817 ( CWM, LMS South African Journals, 3). Note that the Tlhaping were the southernmost Tswana people.
This is not an isolated case; mission archives are filled with similar
accounts. See, for just one further example,
R. Hamilton, Lattakoo, 15 May
1817 ( CWM, LMS Incoming Letters [ South Africa], 7-1-C).
J. Archbell, Platberg, 2 September 1833 ( WMMS, South Africa
Correspondence [ Albany], 303); Livingstone ( 1857,21).
J. Archbell, Cradock, 23 May 1831 ( WMMS, South Africa Correspondence [ Albany], 303).
T. Hodgson, Matlwassie, 12 January 1824 ( WMMS, South Africa
See also A. Wookey, Kuruman, 23 May, 1884 ( CWM, LMS Incoming
Letters [ South Africa], 42-3-C). J. Mackenzie, Kuruman, 17 February 1882
( CWM, LMS South Africa Reports, 2-1) details how farmers unable to irrigate were being displaced by the "wealthy" who could.
J. Hughes, Lattakoo, 17 December 1824 ( CWM Archives, LMS South
Africa Journals, 4).
See, e.g., Lichtenstein ([ 1807] 1973,67); Campbell ( 1822,2:219); Hughes ( 1841:523); Mackenzie ( 1883); Moffat ( 1842,502f).
Hebdige ( 1988,21) makes a similar point, but does not annotate it.
The circulation of some missionary texts was very substantial indeed; for example,
Brantlinger ( 1985,176) notes that Livingstone's Missionary Travels ( 1857) sold 70,000 copies in just a few months.
Dickens's object was not to draw an unflattering parallel between
the English poor and savage Africans. He sought to call attention to the
dreadful conditions under which the former were forced to live.
A point is in order here. As
Stedman Jones ( 1971,part III) correctly
points out, late nineteenth-century writings on the predicament of the casual
poor in London underwent several transformations--largely as a product of
rapidly changing social and economic conditions. For present purposes, however, these transformations are not directly significant. The bourgeois ideology of domesticity did not change much over the period; nor did the efforts of
middle-class reformers and missionaries to reconstruct the home life of the
Achebe, Chinua. 1978. "An Image of Africa". Research in African Literatures 9:1-15.
Alatas, Hussein S. 1977. The Myth of the Lazy Native: A Study of the Image
of the Malays, Filipinos and Javanese. . . . London: F. Cass.
Archer, Thomas. 1865. The Pauper, the Thief, and the Convict; Sketches of
Some of their Homes, Haunts, and Habits. London: Groombridge.
Barrow, John. 1801- 1804. An Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa in the Years 1797 and 1798. 2 vols. London: Cadell & Davies.
-----. 1806. A Voyage to Cochinchina. London: Cadell & Davies.