expedient for a man who has served four years in congress to return home, mix with the people, and reside some time with them. This will tend to reinstate him in the interests, feelings, and views similar to theirs, and thereby confirm in him the essential qualifications of a legislator. Even in point of information, it may be observed, the useful information of legislators is not acquired merely in studies in offices, and in meeting to make laws from day to day. They must learn the actual situation of the people by being among them, and when they have made laws, return home and observe how they operate. Thus occasionally to be among the people, is not only necessary to prevent or banish the callous habits and self-interested views of office in legislators, but to afford them necessary information, and to render them useful. Another valuable end is answered by it, sympathy, and the means of communication between them and their constituents, is substantially promoted. So that on every principle legislators, at certain periods, ought to live among their constituents.

Some men of science are undoubtedly necessary in every legislature; but the knowledge, generally, necessary for men who make laws, is a knowledge of the common concerns, and particular circumstances of the people. In a republican government seats in the legislature are highly honorable. I believe but few do, and surely none ought to, consider them as places of profit and permanent support. Were the people always properly attentive, they would, at proper periods, call their lawmakers home, by sending others in their room. But this is not often the case; and therefore, in making constitutions, when the people are attentive, they ought cautiously to provide for those benefits, those advantageous changes in the administration of their affairs, which they are often apt to be inattentive to in practice. On the whole, to guard against the evils, and to secure the advantages I have mentioned, with the greatest degree of certainty, we ought clearly in my opinion, to increase the federal representation, to secure elections on proper principles, to establish a right to recall members, and a rotation among them.

THE FEDERAL FARMER


Antifederalist No. 64
ON THE ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF THE SENATE (PART III)

The tone of the following essay by "CINCINNATUS" is markedly different from that by "Brutus" or "The Federal Farmer." Bitter, emotional, overstated, and calculated to alarm, its theme centered on the Senate as an aristocratic stronghold. Written as an answer to James Wilson (see Antifederalist No. 12) it appeared as the fourth essay of "Cincinnatus" in The New- York Journal, November 22, 1787, reprinted from a Philadelphia newspaper.

I come now, sir, to the most exceptionable part of the Constitution--the Senate. In this, as in every other part, you [ James Wilson of Pennsylvania] are in the line of your profession [law], and on that ground assure your

-188-

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