Institutional Sustainability in Agriculture and Rural Development: A Global Perspective

By Derick W. Brinkerhoff; Arthur A. Goldsmith | Go to book overview

13
Training and Visit as an Approach for Sustainable Agricultural Extension: Applications in the Philippines

Daniel J. Gustafson

Analysis of the Philippines National Extension Project (NEP) provides an opportunity to examine management strategies for agricultural extension development. This exercise sheds light on the utility of the SCOPE framework in determining critical elements in the sustainability of extension systems, and highlights sustainability issues of the training and visit extension system (T&V).

T&V is an organizational and managerial approach whose purpose is to develop a professional extension service capable of providing farmers in developing countries with usable technical advice. The World Bank has financed more than 90 projects based on this approach, and it has been adopted in dozens of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Efforts have been made to apply the T&V principles to programs in health, population, and nutrition ( Heaver, 1984) and other types of education services ( Israel, 1987).

Most of the discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the T&V system has centered on specific features of the principles and their practical implementation, such as the exclusive attention of extension to technology adaptation and transfer, the interaction with researchers, the participation of farmers in the system, and others. The issue of recurrent costs has been raised by several authors ( Howell, 1984; Roberts, 1989), as well as broader linkage considerations with the environment ( Pickering , 1983), but little explicit attention has been given to the issue of institutional sustainability of T&V schemes.

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