Institutional Sustainability in Agriculture and Rural Development: A Global Perspective

By Derick W. Brinkerhoff; Arthur A. Goldsmith | Go to book overview

ture, and environmental hostility appear generally consistent with the management strategy of T&V. The large variations that do exist, require that aspects of the T&V philosophy of mechanical operations and interactive learning must be emphasized differently in different contexts. Over time, and in light of changing conditions, the system must be capable of adaptation and learning or it will not remain viable. The analysis presented in this paper would indicate that T&V is not primarily an inflexible, mechanical system. It attempts purposefully to limit the degree of complexity so that a more mechanical strategy can begin to produce results. As the system advances, the learning and linkages among farmers, researchers, and extensionists must supply the continuing internal dynamics of the system.

With regard to the Philippine extension system, the same holds true. However, by choosing to develop a farm advisory service that deals with significantly more complexity, the strategy must also accommodate and support the additional costs. The modified T&V approach adopted, places very great demands on the field technicians, without apparently providing the additional resources necessary to carry out this more interactive strategy.

Finally, there is an issue closely related to sustainability which the SCOPE analysis does not appear to deal with adequately--the issue of recurring costs. The four strategies imply different levels of resource requirements, mechanical being the lowest. Even this level, however, requires considerable human and financial inputs, perhaps higher than overburdened public bureaucracies can handle, regardless of the long- run payoff to farmers and society. The interaction between the framework's present elements and the extension system's initial or continued financing, would appear to be a profitable topic for further refinement and research.


NOTES
1.
The T&V claim Is only to universal applicability to the task of agricultural extension, although Israel ( 1987) goes much further. This is not necessarily inconsistent with contingency theory--if the job of extension is seen as much the same the world over, then some basic framework might be applied. To the extent that different roles are assigned to extension ( Rivera, 1988), different frameworks may be needed.
2.
This ratio of extension staff to farmers is truly exceptional. In the pilot T&V projects in India described by Feder and Slade, ( 1984) each village extension worker typically covered 700-800 farming families.

-208-

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