service learning context. And because university professors or supervisors must visit the schools during student teaching, this model does not require a large increase in time or resources. Finally, teacher educators can place student teachers on low-income campuses where resources are limited. Such a placement nearly guarantees that teacher education students will be working in the interests of those truly in need, who often represent the urban areas. In other words, place does matter.
This model is only one suggestion. Certainly teacher educators and professors in other disciplines can develop additional strategies to make service learning more effective and more consistent with the needs of students and society. As in all educational development, service learning is an ideal. It will take several years of implementation and honest reflection to develop truly sound programs. At the moment, however, service learning is in need of a provisional definition and the construction of borders that will help to carve its space in higher education. If service learning is to take hold in the life of the university, it cannot be the answer to all the institution's or the country's problems. Furthermore, more evaluative research must be conducted to determine its effectiveness. Professors must clearly understand the nature of service learning if they are to navigate the new moral ground service learning covers. As I have pointed out, the context of service learning cannot be ignored, nor can the students who perform such learning.
Addams J. ( 1972). The spirit of youth and the city streets. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. (Original work published 1909)
Astin A. ( 1997). Liberal education and democracy: The case for pragmatism. Liberal Education, 83, 4-15.
Boyer E. ( 1990). Scholarship reconsidered. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Darling-Hammond L. ( 1994). Who will speak for the children? How "Teach for America" hurts urban schools and students. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 21-34.
Goodlad J. I., Soder R., & Sirotnik K. ( 1990). The moral dimensions of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Herzberg B. ( 1994). Community service and critical teaching. College Composition and Communication, 43(3), 307-319.
Humphreys H. C. ( 1923). The factors operating in the location of state normal schools. New York: Teachers College.
Kahan D. ( 1998). When everyone gets what they want: A description of a physical education-teacher education service-learning project. Action in Teacher Education, 29(4), 43-60.