Learning and Memory: The Behavioral and Biological Substrates

By Isidore Gormezano; Edward A. Wasserman | Go to book overview

of food first only when the feeders had covers. When access to food was made easy by leaving feeders open, rats fell back on a linear strategy of visiting every feeder in spatial order. A strategy of sampling all food sources may be the rat's default option unless access to food is made difficult. From this point of view, the selective foraging seen when different quantities of food are placed on the ends of a radial maze may arise from the travel time required to run up and down the arms of the maze.

A final example of what appears to be hard-wired decision rules is found in central place foraging on the radial maze. Rats begin to carry large food items to the center of the maze on the first day of testing. After as many as 50 days of testing, food-carrying functions like that seen in Fig. 1.8 are still found. Although rats are never interrupted during testing sessions and certainly no predators appear, rats continue to behave as if the center of the maze is a place of safety to which large pieces of food must be carried. One evolutionary basis for this behavior may be the wild rat's burrow structure, in which central chambers are built with a number of escape routes or bolt holes ( Pisano & Storer, 1948). The center of the maze may be a preferred place to consume food because it offers the greatest number of escape routes. Both the difference in handling times for food eaten on an arm and in the center and the difference in return travel times when carrying and not carrying food reinforce the conclusion that rats perceive the center of the maze as considerably safer than the arms.

The radial maze appears to have considerable ecological validity for the study of foraging in rats. Although it has traditionally been used as a tool for the investigation of memory ( Olton, 1978; Roberts, 1984), it appears that its use can now be extended to the study of several kinds of foraging in rats. Further, experiments on the radial maze appear to be providing us with considerable information about the functional use of memory in animal foraging.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Preparation of this chapter was supported by Grant A7894 from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


REFERENCES

Balda R. P. ( 1980). "Recovery of cached seeds by a captive Nucifraga caryocactes." Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 52, 331-346.

Balda R. P., & Turek. R. J. ( 1994). "The cache-recovery system as an example of memory capabilities in Clark's nutcracker." In H. L. Roitblat, T. G. Bever, & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Animal cognition (pp. 513-532). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Barnett S. A. ( 1975). The rat. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

-21-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Learning and Memory: The Behavioral and Biological Substrates
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 416

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.