critical temporal attributes within the expectancy- or knowledge-based memory system. Fuster ( 1985) has also suggested that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys and humans mediates prospective functions of temporal ordering of information. Support for this possible prospective function comes from the findings that some cells in the dorsolateral-frontal cortex of monkeys show a gradual increase in their firing rate during the delay in apparent anticipation of the test phase of a delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response or delayed alternation task ( Fuster, Bauer, & Jervey, 1982; Kojima, Matsumura, & Kubota, 1981; Niki, 1974a, 1974b). Furthermore, Shallice ( 1982) has shown that left frontal-lobe damaged patients have a difficult time solving the Tower of Hanoi problem. This problem requires temporal ordering of simple moves and thus requires planning and the utilization of prospective codes.
In conclusion, data have been presented in support of a neurobiological model of an attribute theory of memory. More specifically, it has been shown that (a) the medial prefrontal cortex of rats or dorsolateral frontal cortex of monkeys and humans plays a unique role in mediating temporal and egocentric spatial cognitive maps, and (b) the prefrontal cortex appears to subserve these temporal and egocentric spatial maps within the expectancy- or knowledge-based memory system.
Support for this research was provided by NIH Grant No. R01NS20771-07.
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