How Reading Outcomes of Students With Disabilities Are Related to Instructional Grouping Formats: A Meta-Analytic Review
Batya Elbaum University of Miami
Sharon Vaughn University of Texasat Austin
Marie Tejero Hughes Sally Watson Moody Jeanne Shay Schumm University of Miami
Given that there are more students who need to learn to read than there are teachers to teach them, what is the best way to organize students, teachers, and the curriculum to manage instruction for the effective teaching of reading?
( Otto, Wolf, & Eldridge, 1984, p. 800)
Both general and special education teachers in the United States are faced with complex classroom ecologies ( Speece & Keogh, 1996). The broadening range of cultural, linguistic, and academic diversity among students coupled with increasing class sizes poses a challenge for teachers in their efforts to provide appropriate reading instruction for all students. This challenge is particularly acute as teachers plan and implement instruction for students with disabilities for whom learning to read is very difficult. A variety of grouping formats, such as peer tutoring, have been offered as having promise for meeting individual needs within large, diverse classroom settings. However, the impact of these grouping formats on the development of reading skills for students with disabilities has not been determined. A synthesis of the research on grouping formats for reading instruction for students with disabilities is warranted, particularly