The Bull Ea Quae (Julius II.). January 24, 1506.
In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Calicut by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Two years later, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, hastening to India in command of a Portuguese fleet to follow up Gama's successes, landed, near 16° south, upon the coast of Brazil, of which, nearly three months previously, Pinzon, and, shortly after, Diego de Lepe, had taken formal possession for Castile. The fact that this portion of South America extended beyond the east or Portuguese side of the line of demarcation further complicated the relations of the two countries, whose rivalry now became intense. Expeditions in which Vespucius, detached for a time from Spanish service, sailed under a Portuguese captain ( 1501-1502, 1503-1504), acquainted the Portuguese with the vast extent of the Brazilian coast, and far to the north, in 1500 and 1501, Gaspare Corte-Real visited lands which the Portuguese located on their side of the line.1 The line, therefore, now had a new value for the Portuguese and it was probably this fact that induced King Emmanuel to ask Pope Julius II. to confirm the treaty of Tordesillas that had established it.2
Julius II. was well disposed toward King Emmanuel, who was so zealously laboring for the extension of the faith in Morocco, in Guinea, and notably in India, where the foundations of a colonial empire were beginning to be laid. In the early summer of 1505, a Portuguese embassy of obedience reached Rome, and before its return to Portugal in the following October, had obtained from the pontiff a number of important concessions.3 In the following spring, the pope bestowed upon the king the consecrated golden rose.4 A few months after the return of the embassy and before the bestowal____________________